The most common creep feed is high in energy and about 16 percent crude protein. Data would suggest that high-energy creeps will result in the greatest weight gain. Calves will eat about 3.2 pounds per head daily (range of 0 to 6.5 pounds per head per day, depends on length of the creep feeding period), a gain-to-feed ratio of 1 pound of gain to 6 pounds of creep (range of 1-to-4.2 to 1-to-10), and an increase ADG of 0.3 pounds (range of 0.15 to 0.65 pound increase in ADG) compared to non-creep-fed calves.

There are creep diets that are high- protein formulations, over 30 percent crude protein. These formulations are mostly soybean meal or a combination of soybean and cottonseed meal and intake is controlled by inclusion of salt. Overall weight gain is less than energy creeps; daily consumption is about 1.25 pounds per head per day (range of 0 to 2.5 pounds per head per day), and gain-to-feed ratio of 1 pound of gain to 4 pounds of creep (range of 1-to-3 to 1-to-7).

Creep grazing calves appears to be most beneficial when the forages that cow-calf pairs are grazing are low in quantity or quality and high-quality creep forage can be grown more inexpensively than conventional creep feeds can be purchased. To implement creep grazing, a producer could plant small pastures of high-quality forage adjacent to pastures grazed by cow-calf pairs. Forages well-suited for use in a creep grazing system are high in forage quality and readily available. If the growth of the forage being used as creep forage becomes excessive, allow cows to graze it until the forage reaches a level manageable by the calves alone. Another option in a “cell grazing” situation is to allow access of the next pasture in the rotation to the calves before allowing the cows access.

There are data suggesting that creep feeding has a positive effect on carcass quality. The effect of creep feeding on carcass quality is influenced by the length of the creep feeding period and type of creep feed fed. If calves are sold at weaning, creep-fed calves will be heavier than non-creep-fed calves; therefore, more calf weight can be sold. The key is, can this management practice be accomplished economically and increase the profit potential of the cow/calf enterprise? When determining costs for creep feeding, include not only feed costs, but equipment (creep feeder, tractor, and wagon with an auger to fill the feeder if not done by the creep supplier) and labor costs.

Fall calving herds in the Midwest are challenged because of low nutrient quality of the forage resource when lactation occurs. The concern, in my opinion, is heifers to be selected as replacements. The challenge for them is to have ample weight at weaning and it may be difficult to develop them at a rate that a producer would be comfortable with to get them to reach puberty and cycle before the start of the breeding season. In this situation, creep feeding may be warranted.


As calf weight increases, their value is less on a dollar-per-pound or dollar-per-cwt basis. In other words, there’s a price slide down for calves that weigh 500 pounds compared to calves that weigh 400. This is important because the added calf weight from creep feeding cannot be priced at market value, but should be priced at something less than market price.

As an example, a calf price for a 500-pound calf at $1 per pound or $500 total and a $5 per cwt price slide for a 560 or $0.95 per pound or $532 total. Therefore, the extra 60 pounds returns an extra $32. The value of each added pound was worth $0.53 ($32 per 60 pounds = $0.53). In 1995 with poorer calf prices, a 500-pound calf would bring about $68 per hundred pounds or $340 total. There was a less severe price slide and the heavier 560-pound calf sold for $66.42 per hundred or $372 total (560 x $0.6642 = 371.95).

Again the extra 60 pounds brought $32 and the value of each pound of added gain was $0.53. Obviously not all situations result in exactly $0.53 per pound of added gain. However, it is amazing how often the value of added gain is between $0.45 and $0.65. The dollar return for implementing creep feeding can be calculated. If the cost of the creep feed is $10 per cwt and the calf eats on average 3.5 pounds daily, in a 90-day creep-feeding period, the calf will eat 315 pounds. The cost of feed for the 90-day creep feeding period is $31.50. In this scenario, the net return from creep feeding is $0.50 ($32 income - $31.50 feed costs = $0.50) per calf. The return from creep feeding in these calculations only includes the feed and no labor and equipment. Do the calculations with your numbers.

When making decisions about supplementing nursing calves, take into account cost and availability of feed and forage options to creep the calves, calf prices and calf marketing plans. The cost of creep supplementation depends on the cost of creep feed and calf feed conversion.  end_mark

This article originally appeared on University of Nebraska – Lincoln Beef Cattle Production website.

Rick Rasby, University of Nebraska – Lincoln